This site is designed to relieve sickness and to preserve, promote and protect the health of the public by educating, diagnosing and treating vascular diseases. This site focuses on vascular diseases outside the heart and the brain, including diseases of the peripheral arteries, veins and lymphatic. Then the blockages could involve the small arteries as in diabetics leading to diabetic foot.
Risk factor is anything that increases the patient’s chances of getting the disease. The risk factors associated with vascular disease are circumstances that can be changed or treated and factors that cannot be changed.
Vascular disorders mainly include the arteries and the veins. Venous diseases are mostly a result of venous hypertension. This could arise because of blockage of the vein or due to incompetence (improper functioning) of the valves within the veins. If blockages occur in the deep veins then it is called Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and if it involves the superficial veins it is known as Thrombophlebitis. If venous valve incompetence is the cause of venous hypertension and it involves the superficial veins then it is responsible for Varicose veins. However if the deep veins have incompetent valves we say it is Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI).
There are two basic defects associated with the arteries -blocked arteries and dilated arteries. Blocked arteries are very common in smokers. This blockage may occur suddenly – acute blockage – due to a clot from the heart and presents as an emergency because it does not give time for development of side channels (collaterals) to supply nutrition and oxygen to the tissue via the blood. Then the blockage may develop over years, slowly. This we call chronic occlusion. The part of the body beyond the blockage suffers from severe pain, numbness, reduced power of movement, cold and pale.
The artery may get dilated due to weakness in the wall – aneurysm. The main danger is sudden bursting of the artery which could be life threatening.
High ‘flying life not good for legs!
Many of you may people leading high flying life and the way they live… having breakfast in Mumbai, lunch in London and dinner in Newyork. And some amongst you may also sometimes think of chasing similar dreams. Be careful! Those dreams may soon turn into nightmares for your legs, enough for you to land up in hospital fighting to stay alive. Medical experts are of the view that regular and long distance travelers have to be careful as these journeys result in immobilization of legs which can lead to deadly vascular disease called ‘Deep vein thrombosis’ (DVT).
Experts say that ‘Deep vein thrombosis’ DVT is the result of a blood clot in one of the deep veins of the body, usually in the legs, which is caused due to immobilization during a long flight or car journey. Experts say that due to the pumping action of the calf muscles, when we walk, blood passing through the deep veins of the muscles flows relatively slowly. And when a DVT occurs it almost stagnates and forms a clot, which becomes wedged in the vein. DVT is thus a disease of blood circulation and occurs most often in people who have, for some reason or the other, not been able to exercise. People who have been suffering from swollen legs for years despite repeated medical attention, those having swollen legs with change in color and suffering from an ulcer on the inner side of the leg above the ankle should not take these problems lightly as it could be a vascular in origin. “If one is suffering from the above mentioned symptoms can be life threatening. If timely medical aid is not given,” experts opine.
Explaining how DVT occurs, Doctors says that blood flows down the legs by arteries which divide and redivide into fine vessels ultimately forming capillaries.”These in turn join to form veins and return blood to the blockage and the pressure in the vein rises, so that the fluid coming from the swelling.” Doctors say.
According to experts, venous stasis blood flow, injury to vessel wall and changes in the blood components (responsible for hypercoagulable states) are the three basic causes of the DVT.
“Blockage in the iliac and femoral vein leads to leg swelling from the groin to toe and is more dangerous as these clots can dislodge, and may go to the lungs which can be fatel. In such cases a vascular specialist has to be consulted and in the meantime complete bed rest is necessary,” says Doctors.
When the clot from the femoral vein dislodges and lands in the main artery, it leads to emergency.’ Such Patients survive less than 30 minutes if left unattended,” Doctors says, adding that such patients suffer from acute breathlessness and their color turns blue. While pointing out that one should not take leg swelling casually, Doctors: It is not the DVT that really causes concer, but the complications accompanying it.”
While DVT is common after prolonged immobilization like long journeys and after injuries to the leg following accident or surgery, women are more prone to it during pregnancy. According to Doctors, the most lethal complication of DVT is the killer pulmonary embolism (PE) that can occur in up to 10 per cent of the high- risk patients. “The others are responsible for prolonged distress,” he says adding that chronic nagging pain, swelling and skin ulceration of the leg means that it is post-thrombotic syndrome at play .Pointing out that early and aggressive treatment for three to six months is the key to prevention of long-term detersive complications like valve destruction leading to chronic Chopra says: “If timely treatment is taken the chances of losing one’s leg is less than one per cent.”
He says that an international study on the disease showed that 35 to 69 per cent of patients get the syndrome three years after five to ten years depending on the extent of thrombosis. “Those figures are quite alarming,” Doctor says and warns:” Do not take leg swelling lightly,”DVT is a common problem all over the world. Though statistics for India are not available, in the West 160 patients per 1, 00,000 have it annually. That may not look very alarming, but when we multiply it with a billion populations it reaches scary proportions.

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