The basic treatment of varicose veins is to reduce the abnormally high pressure at the ankle and the universally accepted treatment includes wearing of stockings, injections and surgery.
“Out of all the three options, wearing stockings appears to be the best option for the patient as it avoids surgery. It reduces the pressure at the ankle, but have to be worn life long despite the seasonal variation, even during the hot Indian summer. They delay the ulcers but don’t prevent them,”

Injection therapy or sclerotherapy is very commonly conducted in outpatient departments and is generally used in aged and non- surgical candidates.
Surgery is the most commonly followed method the world over as is effective.

“Varicose veins are a common problem all over the world and are neglected as
complications take years to present, most people wait for the distressing stage”

Varicose veins are swollen, twisted and sometimes painful veins that have filled with an abnormal collection of blood.

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Varicose veins are swollen, painful veins that have filled with blood. They usually develop in the legs.
• Normally, valves in your veins keep your blood flowing forward, so the blood does not collect in one place.
• The valves in varicose veins are either damaged or missing. This causes the veins to become filled with blood, especially when you are standing.
Vein stripping is usually done when a large vein in the leg called the superficial saphenous vein is thick and rope-like.
Vein stripping usually takes about 1 to 1 1/2 hours. Most people receive either:
• General anesthesia and will be asleep and unable to feel pain.
• Spinal anesthesia, which will make the lower half of your body feel numb. You may also get medicine to help you relax.
Your surgeon will make two small surgical cuts in your leg.
• The cuts will be near the top and bottom of your damaged vein. One will be in your groin. The other will be farther down your leg, either in your calf or ankle.
• Your surgeon will then thread a thin, flexible plastic wire into the vein through your groin and guide the wire through the vein toward the other cut farther down your leg.
• The wire is then tied to the vein and pulled out through the lower cut, which pulls the vein out with it.
If you have other damaged veins, your surgeon may also make small cuts over them to remove them or tie them off.
The doctor will close the cuts with stitches (sutures). You will have bandages and compression stockings on your leg after the procedure.
Normally, valves in your veins keep your blood flowing forward so it does not collect in one place. But the valves in varicose veins may be damaged, deformed, or missing. As a result, the veins stay filled with blood, especially when you are standing.
When you stand up, you can see varicose veins as large, bluish vessels that may feel like a “rope.”
Nonsurgical treatments for varicose veins can be performed in a doctor’s office or clinic. You will receive local anesthesia to numb your leg. You will be awake but will not feel pain.
Sclerotherapy is one common treatment for varicose veins. Your doctor will inject salt water (saline) or a chemical solution into the varicose vein. The vein will harden and then disappear. Sclerotherapy works best for small spider veins.
Newer methods are also being used to treat varicose veins. One is called radiofrequency ablation. Another is called endovenous laser ablation. Each of these methods uses intense heat to treat the vein. During these procedures:
• Your doctor will puncture the varicose vein. Ultrasound (a painless way to see inside your leg) will guide your doctor during the treatment.
• Your doctor will thread a a flexible tube (catheter) through the vein up to your groin. The doctor will inject a special solution into your vein to numb it.
• Intense heat will reach the vein through the catheter in the vein. The heat will close off and destroy the vein. The vein will disappear over time.
These newer procedures can treat varicose veins in the upper thigh only.

Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins have problems sending blood from the legs back to the heart.
See also:
• Deep venous thrombosis
• Stasis dermatitis and ulcers
• Varicose veins
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Venous insufficiency is caused by problems in one or more deeper leg veins. Normally, valves in your veins keep your blood flowing back towards the heart so it does not collect in one place. But the valves in varicose veins are either damaged or missing. This causes the veins to remain filled with blood, especially when you are standing.
The condition may also be caused by a blockage in a vein from a clot (deep vein thrombosis).
Chronic venous insufficiency is a long-term condition. It occurs because of partial vein blockage or blood leakage around the valves of the veins.
Risk factors for venous insufficiency include:
• History of deep vein thrombosis in the legs
• Age
• Being female (related to levels of the hormone progesterone)
• Being tall
• Genetic factors
• Obesity
• Pregnancy
• Prolonged sitting or standing

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